50th Anniversary Legacy
by Sedelta Oosahwee
As American Indian Graduate Center begins to celebrate its 50th Anniversary, it is important to look back at the history of the organization and the people’s whose foresight and vision lead to the creation of the American Indian Graduate Center. One of the cofounders of what today is known as the American Indian Graduate Center was, Robert L. Bennett (Oneida).
Charles “Chuck” Trimble, one of the first Board Members, remembered Bennett as, “a very deep gentlemen and a gentle soul. I saw him always looking for opportunities for Indian people.” His role as a co-founder is one of the many times Bennett saw an opportunity for Indian people which ultimately created opportunities for thousands of Native students over the last 50 years.
Bennett was born on the Oneida Indian Reservation near Green Bay, Wisconsin in 1912. He attended Haskell Institute in Kansas before he studied law at Southwestern University Law School in Washington DC, where he earned his law degree in 1941. Much of his legal work supported Native land claims. For this work he was awarded the Indian Achievement Award in 1962 and Outstanding American Indian Citizen Award in 1966. His commitment and work representing American Indians caught the attention of many including President Lyndon B. Johnson.
In 1966 Bennett was appointed by President Lyndon B. Johnson to serve as the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. This appointment was historic as Bennet was only the second Native American to serve in this role. In this capacity, he often visited area office where he was disappointed to find none of the offices were headed by Native Americans. The seeds of this observation had likely been sown earlier at meetings with John C. Rainer (Taos Pueblo). Rainer and Bennett met often during their time in Washington, D.C. and could not help but notice the lack of American Indian/Alaska Native professionals in all fields. They were aware that much of this was due to a lack of funding for students seeking graduate degrees. In fact, in 1967 a Report on Indian Education for the American Indian Policy Review Commission noted there were only 13 Native students enrolled in graduate studies. This was further proof of the need for more funding and opportunities to fund Native students in graduate studies.
In 1969 Bennett left the Bureau of Indian Affairs and moved to Albuquerque, New Mexico where he became the director of the American Indian Law Center. That same year Rainer was selected to direct the New Mexico Commission of Indian Affairs. As their paths crossed again in New Mexico they set out to find a solution to the issues they had identified during their time in Washington, D.C. One of the solutions was to create a scholarship program focused on funding Native students in graduate and professional programs.
To this end, the newly established National Indian Scholarship Program was founded at the University of New Mexico in August of 1969. One of the first steps the men took was to establish a board to help set priorities and help get the word out about the new program. The first Board of Directors was made up of some of the most well-known Native scholars and professionals.
Trimble remarked it was a “virtual Who’s Who’ of Indian scholars and leaders. They were all doers.” The Board included, Joe Sando (Jemez Pueblo), Dave Warren (San Clara Pueblo) , Lucy Covington (Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation) , Ada Deer (Menominee), Overton James (Chickasaw), Leah Manning (Shoshone-Paiute), Chuck Trimble (Oglala Sioux Tribe), Rainer and Bennett. The members voted to set up an independent office, apply for tax exempt status and named Bennett the General Director.
On November 14, 1970 Rainer announced a $15,000 transfer from the Donner Foundation to provide direct scholarship assistance. This grant lead to the development of a contract with the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The following year Bennett, Warren and Sando signed the Articles of Incorporation and the name of the program was changed to American Indian Scholarship, Inc. That year one of the first scholarships awarded was to Donald A. McCabe, who was awarded $1,200 to support his studies in Business Administration. McCabe would go on to serve as President of the Southwest Indian Polytechnic Institution and would be one of the first of thousands of success stories and alumni.
The work of the Center became even more critical in 1981 when the Reagan Administration reduced funding for all levels of Native higher education from $282 million to $169 million. Around this time the program also received results of a survey they had sent to past recipients to evaluate effectiveness and provide information for future proposals. They found they were providing financial assistance to less than 1/5 of all Native students attending graduate school and half of the recipients were women. The reduction in federal funding and survey results highlighted the need to support their work. The National Indian Lutheran Board donated $10,000 as seed money to generate more funds. Exxon, Texaco, Arco and Syntex also contributed.
By 1988 American Indian Graduate Center was well established. That year 152 women and 140 men received funding. These students represented 81 Tribes from 22 states. The students were studying in the disciplines of law, health, religious studies, natural resources and fine art.
Another milestone was reached in 1989 as the organization celebrated its 20th anniversary. The program underwent a final name change to become American Indian Graduate Center. The name was changed to be more reflective of the organization’s expansion to become a national center with expanded services and activities.
As American Indian Graduate Center entered the 1990’s they expanded their work and footprint with a $65,000 grant from the Department of Energy for a tracking project to develop a national database of all Native college students to be used as a way to identify potential graduate students for internship and employment opportunities. The database would also assist in identifying and documenting the needs of Native students. Five years later American Indian Graduate Center sent a survey to all federally recognized Tribes to identify their future employment needs. The top ten professions reported (in order of need) were: business manager, lawyer, accountant, natural resource manager, doctor, teacher, counselor, financial analyst, engineer and computer technician. The survey also found less than 3% of Tribal members had a college degree. American Indian Graduate Center used this information to inform their work and as reminders of the importance of their work.
The Center continued to grow and reached another major milestone in 2001. American Indian Graduate Center was selected as one of the four partner organizations to help administer the Gates Millennium Scholarship Program. This selection required American Indian Graduate Center to create American Indian Graduate Scholars, Inc to manage the scholarship. This addition doubled the staff and office space required to administer the Gates Millennium Scholarship. The scholarship was funded by a generous grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The goal of the Gates Millennium Scholarship program was to fund 20,000 outstanding, low-income American Indian/Alaska Native, African American, Asian Pacific Islander American and Hispanic students with the opportunity to complete their undergraduate studies in the degree of their choice.
The early 2000s were marked with huge growth, but American Indian Graduate Center also saw huge losses. Rainer passed away September 22, 2001. The next year on July 22, Bennett passed away. They were able to witness over 30 years of growth from the scholarship program they started in 1969.
American Indian Graduate Center continues to build and add partners to their work. Through the support of endowed gifts, federal resources, corporate support, foundations, alumni and individual private donations American Indian Graduate Center continues to grow. Last fiscal year the American Indian Graduate Center awarded over $14,000,000 in scholarships and academic support services to 1,340 Native scholars. These scholars represent 202 tribes from 49 states.
The impact of American Indian Graduate Center can be seen throughout Indian Country. As Chuck Trimble looked back on the history of the Center he remarked on the vision of Bennett, “A lot of times things like this turned into a one-time offering. Instead they built an organization with the capacity to grow and acquire more funding to provide more opportunities. I really think Bennett had a lot to do with that.” It’s hard not to hear the smile in Trimble’s voice as he recalls the beginnings of American Indian Graduate Center.
What started as the idea of two men has grown to become the premier national resource in funding and continues to empower the next generation of Native leaders across all sectors. It is hard to find a Native professional that does not have a connection to the Center as an alumni or friend of the Center. Those that receive support from American Indian Graduate Center often have similar feedback and recognize the Center is not just a scholarship granting organization, it is family. The dream of Bennet and Rainer is being realized by so many.
Bennet would be happy to know that if he were to walk into a BIA field office today, he would be met by another Native person running the office, surrounded by Native staff. His dream of creating Native professionals extends past regional bureau offices to doctor’s office, classrooms, courts, laboratories, agencies, Tribal offices and beyond.